Excel Formulas
Overview
Unqork logic components let you use formulas in your configuration. Components that support formulas are the Calculator, Initializer, and Data Workflow components. You can enter formulas into the Output table of the Calculator and Initializer components. Using formulas in the Data Workflow operator depends on the operators you configure. For example, the Formula operator supports formula configuration.
Below is an extensive list of all supported Excel formulas in Unqork.
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

ABS 
Returns the absolute value of a number. 
ABS(number) 

ACCRINT 
Calculates accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest. 
ACCRINT(issue, first_interest, settlement, rate, par, frequency, [basis]) 

ACOS 
Returns the arccosine of a number or angle of a cosign. 
ACOS(number) 

ACOSH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. 
ACOSH(number) 

ACOT 
Returns the arccotangent or arc cotangent of a number. This is the angle, measured in radians, that has a cotangent equal to the given number. 
ACOT(number) 

ACOTH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic arccotangent of a number. 
ACOTH(number) 

AGGREGATE 
Groups multiple values in a list or database into a single value. 
AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1, [ref2], …) 

AND 
Used to determine whether all conditions are true. 
AND(logical1, [logical2], ...) 

ARABIC 
Converts Roman numbers to Arabic numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). 
ARABIC(text) 

ASIN 
Returns the arcsine of a number. 
ASIN(number) 

ASINH 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. 
ASINH(number) 

ATAN 
Returns the arctangent of a number. 
ATAN(number) 

ATAN2 
Returns the arctangent from x and ycoordinates. 
ATAN2(x_num, y_num) 

ATANH 
Calculates the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. 
ATANH(number) 

AVEDEV 
Returns the average deviation of a set of values. 
AVEDEV(number1, [number2], ...) 

AVERAGE 
Returns the arithmetic mean of the numbers provided. 
AVERAGE(number1, [number2], ...) 

AVERAGEA 
Returns the arithmetic mean of the numbers, text, and logical values provided. 
AVERAGEA(value1, [value2], ...) 

AVERAGEIF 
Returns the arithmetic mean of the cells in a range that meet a given criteria. 
AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, [average_range]) 

AVERAGEIFS 
Returns the arithmetic mean of the cells in a range that meet a given criteria. 
AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

BASE 
Returns a text representation by converting a number into a supplied base (radix). 
BASE(number, radix, [min_length]) 

BESSELI 
Returns the modified Bessel function In(x). 
BESSELI(x, n) 

BESSELJ 
Returns the Bessel function Jn(x). 
BESSELJ(x, n) 

BESSELK 
Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x). 
BESSELK(x, n) 

BESSELY 
Returns the Bessel function Yn(x). 
BESSELY(x, n) 

BETA.DIST 
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. Used when studying variation in the percentage of a value across samples. 
BETA.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative, [A], [B]) 

BETA.INV 
Returns the inverse of the beta cumulative distribution function. Used when studying variation in the percentage of a value across samples. 
BETA.INV(probability, alpha, beta, [A], [B]) 

BETADIST 
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. Used when studying variation in the percentage of a value across samples. 
BETADIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative, [A], [B]) 

BETAINV 
Returns the inverse of the beta cumulative distribution function. Used when studying variation in the percentage of a value across samples. 
BETAINV(probability, alpha, beta, [A], [B]) 

BIN2DEC 
Converts a binary number to decimal. 
BIN2DEC(number) 

BIN2HEX 
Converts a binary number to hexadecimal. 
BIN2HEX(number, [places]) 

BIN2OCT 
Converts a binary number to octal. 
BIN2OCT(number, [places]) 

BINOM.DIST 
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. Use this function when the outcomes of a test are success or failure. 
BINOM.DIST(number_s, trials, probability_s, cumulative) 

BINOM.DIST.RANGE 
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. Use thisfunction when the outcomes of a test are success or failure. 
BINOM.DIST.RANGE(trials, probability_s, number_s, [number_s2]) 

BINOM.INV 
Returns the smallest number of successes where the binomal distribution is less than or equal to a particular value. The result shows the probability of a specific number of successes from a specific number of tests. 
BINOM.INV(trials, probability_s, alpha) 

BINOMDIST 
Calculates the probability of getting less than or equal to a particular value in a binomial distribution. 
BINOMDIST(number_s, trials, probability_s, cumulative) 

BITAND 
Returns a decimal number representing the Bitwise And of two numbers. 
BITAND(number1, number2) 

BITLSHIFT 
Returns a value number shifted left by the number of bits specified. 
BITLSHIFT(number, shift_amount) 

BITOR 
Returns a decimal number representing the Bitwise Or of two numbers. 
BITOR(number1, number2) 

BITRSHIFT 
Returns a value number shifted right by the number of bits specified. 
BITRSHIFT(number, shift_amount) 

BITXOR 
Returns a decimal number based on the comparison of two numbers. This number represents the Exclusive Or of two numbers. If both digits at each position are not equal, it returns a 1 for that position. If both digits at each position are equal, it returns a 0 for that position. 
BITXOR(number1, number2) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

CEILING 
Rounds real a number to the nearest integer greater than or equal to the real number. 
CEILING(number, [significance], [mode]) 

CEILINGMATH 
Rounds real a number to the nearest integer greater than or equal to the real number. 
CEILINGMATH(number, [significance], [mode]) 

CEILING.PRECISE 
Rounds real a number to the nearest integer greater than or equal to the real number. Rounding happens regardless of the sign of the number. 
CEILING.PRECISE(number, [significance]) 

CHAR 
Returns a character specified by the code number. For example, CHAR(10) returns a line break on Windows and CHAR(13) returns a line break on the Mac. 
CHAR(number) 

CHISQ.DIST 
Calculates the chisquared distribution, showing the variation in the percentage across samples. 
CHISQ.DIST(x, deg_freedom, cumulative) 

CHISQ.DIST.RT 
Calculates the righttailed or upper probability of the chisquared distribution. Used when comingare and observing expected values. 
CHISQ.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom) 

CHISQ.INV 
Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution. 
CHISQ.INV(probability, deg_freedom) 

CHISQ.INV.RT 
Returns the inverse of the righttailed probability of the chisquared distribution. 
CHISQ.INV.RT(probability, deg_freedom) 

CHOOSE 
Returns a value from a list of values. 
CHOOSE(index_num, value1, [value2], ...) 

CLEAN 
Returns text with all line breaks and nonprintable characters removed. 
CLEAN(text) 

CODE 
Returns a numeric code for a specified character in a text string. 
CODE(text) 

COLUMN 
Returns the column number of a reference. 
COLUMN(array, index) 

COLUMNS 
Returns the number of columns in a reference. 
COLUMNS(array) 

COMBIN 
Returns the number of combinations for a set of objects. 
COMBIN(number, number_chosen) 

COMBINA 
Returns the number of combinations for a set of objects, including repetitions. 
COMBINA(number, number_chosen) 

COMPLEX 
Converts coefficients (real and imaginary) into a complex number. 
COMPLEX(real_num, i_num, [suffix]) 

CONCATENATE 
Combines several text strings into one string. 
CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ...) 

CONFIDENCE 
Returns the confidence interval for a probability and sample size. 
CONFIDENCE(alpha, standard_dev, size) 

CONFIDENCE.NORM 
Uses the normal distribution to return the confidence interval for a population mean. 
CONFIDENCE.NORM(alpha, standard_dev, size) 

CONFIDENCE.T 
Uses a student's tdistribution to return the confidence interval for a population mean. 
CONFIDENCE.T(alpha, standard_dev, size) 

CONVERT 
Converts a number from one data type to another. 
CONVERT(number, from_unit, to_unit) 

CORREL 
Returns the correlation coefficient or relationship between two data sets. 
CORREL(array1, array2) 

COS 
Returns the cosine of a number. 
COS(number) 

COSH 
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. 
COSH(number) 

COT 
Returns the cotangent of an angle specified in radians.. 
COT(number) 

COTH 
Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a hyperbolic angle. 
COTH(number) 

COUNT 
Counts how many numbers are in a list of arguments. 
COUNT(value1, [value2], ...) 

COUNTA 
Counts how many values are in a list of arguments. 
COUNTA(value1, [value2], ...) 

COUNTBLANK 
Returns the number of empty cells. 
COUNTBLANK(range) 

COUNTIF 
Counts the number of cells for the specified criteria. 
COUNTIF(range, criteria) 

COUNTIFS 
Counts the number of cells meeting multiple specified criteria. 
COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], …) 

COVARIANCE.P 
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. 
COVARIANCE.P(array1, array2) 

COVARIANCE.S 
Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets. 
COVARIANCE.S(array1, array2) 

CSC 
Returns the cosecant of an angle. 
CSC(number) 

CSCH 
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle. 
CSCH(number) 

CUMIPMT 
Returns the cumulative interest paid between a start and end period. 
CUMIPMT(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type) 

CUMPRINC 
Returns the cumulative principal paid between a start and end period. 
CUMPRINC(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

DATE 
Calculates the serial number of a particular date. The date is represented as the number of days since January 1, 1900. 
DATE(year,month,day) 

DATEVALUE 
Parses a date string and returns it as the number of full days since nullDate. 
DATEVALUE(date_text) 

DAY 
Converts a serial number to a day of the month (131). 
DAY(serial_number) 

DAYS 
Calculates the number of days between two dates. 
DAYS(end_date, start_date) 

DAYS360 
Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year. 
DAYS360(start_date,end_date,[method]) 

DB 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixeddeclining balance method. 
DB(cost, salvage, life, period, [month]) 

DDB 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the doubledeclining balance method. 
DDB(cost, salvage, life, period, [factor]) 

DEC2BIN 
Converts a decimal number to binary. 
DEC2BIN(number, [places]) 

DEC2HEX 
Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal. 
DEC2HEX(number, [places]) 

DEC2OCT 
Converts a decimal number to octal. 
DEC2OCT(number, [places]) 

DECIMAL 
Converts a text number into a decimal number. 
DECIMAL(text, radix) 

DEGREES 
Converts radians to degrees. 
DEGREES(angle) 

DELTA 
Compares the difference between two values. 
DELTA(number1, [number2]) 

DEVSQ 
Returns the sum of squares of deviations for a dataset. 
DEVSQ(number1, [number2], ...) 

DOLLAR 
Converts a number to text using the currency format ($#,##0.00). 
DOLLAR(number, [decimals]) 

DOLLARDE 
Converts a dollar price fraction to a decimal. 
DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar, fraction) 

DOLLARFR 
Converts a dollar price fraction to a decimal. 
DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar, fraction) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

EDATE 
Returns a date a set number of months in the past or future from the specified date. 
EDATE(start_date, months) 

EFFECT 
Returns the effective annual interest rate. 
EFFECT(nominal_rate, npery) 

EOMONTH 
Returns the serial number of the last day of the month based on the specified number of months before or after the start date. 
EOMONTH(start_date, months) 

ERF 
Returns the error function. 
ERF(lower_limit,[upper_limit]) 

ERFC 
Returns the complementary error function. 
ERFC(x) 

EVEN 
Rounds a number to the nearest even integer. 
EVEN(number) 

EXACT 
Determines whether two text values are identical. 
EXACT(text1, text2) 

EXP 
Returns Euler's number (e), raised to the power of a given number. Constant e relates to exponential growth and decay. Its value is approximately 2.71828. 
EXP(number) 

EXPON.DIST 
Returns the exponential distribution. 
EXPON.DIST(x,lambda,cumulative) 

EXPONDIST 
Returns the exponential distribution. 
EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

F.DIST 
Returns the F probability distribution. Used when determining whether two datasets have different degrees of diversity . 
F.DIST(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2,cumulative) 

F.DIST.RT 
Returns the F probability distribution. Used when determining whether two datasets have different degrees of diversity. 
F.DIST.RT(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2) 

F.INV 
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. 
F.INV(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2) 

F.INV.RT 
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. 
F.INV.RT(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2) 

FACT 
Counts the number of possible arrangements for a group of items. 
FACT(number) 

FACTDOUBLE 
Returns the double factorial of a number. 
FACTDOUBLE(number) 

FALSE 
Returns the value of false. 
FALSE() 

FDIST 
Calculates the righttailed F probability distribution, which measures the degree of diversity between two datasets. 
FDIST(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2) 

FDISTRT 
Calculates the righttailed F probability distribution, which measures the degree of diversity between two data sets. 
FDISTRT(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2) 

FIND 
Returns the location of one text string inside another. 
FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num]) 

FINV 
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. 
FINV(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2) 

FINVRT 
Returns the inverse of the righttailed F probability distribution. 
FINVRT(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2) 

FISHER 
Returns the Fisher transformation for the supplied value. Used when testing hypotheses on the correlation coefficient. 
FISHER(x) 

FISHERINV 
Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation. 
FISHERINV(y) 

FIXED 
Converts a number to text with a fixed number of decimals. 
FIXED(number, [decimals], [no_commas]) 

FLOOR 
Rounds real a number to the nearest integer less than or equal to the real number. 
FLOOR(number, significance) 

FORECAST 
Returns a predicted future value based on the existing values. 
FORECAST(x, known_y's, known_x's) 

FREQUENCY 
Calculates how often values occur in the specified ranges. 
FREQUENCY(data_array, bins_array) 

FV 
Returns the future value of an investment. 
FV(rate,nper,pmt,[pv],[type]]) 

FVSCHEDULE 
Returns the future value of an investment after applying a series of specified interest rates. 
FVSCHEDULE(principal, schedule) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

GAMMA 
Returns the gamma function value. 
GAMMA(number) 

GAMMA.DIST 
Returns the gamma distribution. 
GAMMA.DIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative) 

GAMMA.INV 
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. 
GAMMA.INV(probability,alpha,beta) 

GAMMADIST 
Returns the gamma distribution. 
GAMMADIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative) 

GAMMAINV 
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. 
GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta) 

GAMMALN 
Calculates the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x). 
GAMMALN(x) 

GAMMALN.PRECISE 
Calculates the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x). 
GAMMALN.PRECISE(x) 

GAUSS 
Returns the number of standard deviations from the mean. 
GAUSS(z) 

GCD 
Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers. 
GCD(number1, [number2], ...) 

GEOMEAN 
Calculates the geometric mean for a set of numbers. 
GEOMEAN(number1, [number2], ...) 

GESTEP 
Tests whether a specified number is greater than a specified step size. 
GESTEP(number, [step]) 

GROWTH 
Calculates predicted exponential growth using the supplied data. 
GROWTH(known_y's, [known_x's], [new_x's], [const]) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

HARMEAN 
Calculates the harmonic mean for a set of values. 
HARMEAN(number1, [number2], ...) 

HEX2BIN 
Converts a hexadecimal (Base16) number to a binary (Base 2) number. 
HEX2BIN(number, [places]) 

HEX2DEC 
Converts a hexadecimal (Base 16) number to decimal number. 
HEX2DEC(number) 

HEX2OCT 
Converts a hexadecimal (Base 16) number to octal (Base 8) number. 
HEX2OCT(number, [places]) 

HOUR 
Converts a serial number to an hour format (9:00 PM). 
HOUR(serial_number) 

HYPGEOM.DIST 
Returns the hypergeometric distribution or probability of a given number of sample successes. 
HYPGEOM.DIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_pop,cumulative) 

HYPGEOMDIST 
Returns the hypergeometric distribution or probability of a given number of sample successes. 
HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_pop,cumulative) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

IF 
Compares a value and expectation based on a condition. 
IF(logical_test, value_if_true, value_if_false) 

IMABS 
Gets the absolute value of a complex number. 
IMABS(inumber) 

IMAGINARY 
Gets the imaginary coefficient of a complex number. 
IMAGINARY(inumber) 

IMARGUMENT 
Returns an argument of a complex number. 
IMARGUMENT(inumber) 

IMCONJUGATE 
Gets the complex conjugate of a complex number. 
IMCONJUGATE(inumber) 

IMCOS 
Returns the cosine of a complex number. 
IMCOS(inumber) 

IMCOSH 
Calculates the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number. 
IMCOSH(inumber) 

IMCOT 
Returns the cotangent of a complex number. 
IMCOT(inumber) 

IMCSC 
Gets the cosecant of a complex number. 
IMCSC(inumber) 

IMCSCH 
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number. 
IMCSCH(inumber) 

IMDIV 
Returns the quotient of two complex numbers. 
IMDIV(inumber1, inumber2) 

IMEXP 
Returns the complex exponential of a complex number. 
IMEXP(inumber) 

IMLN 
Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number. 
IMLN(inumber) 

IMLOG10 
Returns the common (Base10) logarithm of a complex number. 
IMLOG10(inumber) 

IMLOG2 
Returns the Base2 logarithm of a complex number. 
IMLOG2(inumber) 

IMPOWER 
Returns a complex number raised to a specified power. 
IMPOWER(inumber, number) 

IMPRODUCT 
Gets the product of one or more complex numbers. 
IMPRODUCT(inumber1, [inumber2], ...) 

IMREAL 
Gets the real coefficient of a complex number. 
IMREAL(inumber) 

IMSEC 
Returns the secant of a complex number. 
IMSEC(inumber) 

IMSECH 
Gets the hyperbolic secant of a complex number. 
IMSECH(inumber) 

IMSIN 
Returns the sine of a complex number. 
IMSIN(inumber) 

IMSINH 
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number. 
IMSINH(inumber) 

IMSQRT 
Gets the square root of a complex number. 
IMSQRT(inumber) 

IMSUB 
Returns the difference between two complex numbers. 
IMSUB(inumber1, inumber2) 

IMSUM 
Returns the sum of two or more complex numbers. 
IMSUM(inumber1, [inumber2], ...) 

IMTAN 
Returns the tangent of a complex number. 
IMTAN(inumber) 

INT 
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. 
INT(number) 

INTERCEPT 
Gets the intercept of the linear regression line. 
INTERCEPT(known_y's, known_x's) 

IPMT 
Calculates the interest portion of a loan or investment based on the principle payment and payment period. 
IPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type]]) 

IRR 
Calculates the internal rate of return and the expected compound annual rate of return to be earned on an investment. 
IRR(values, [guess]) 

ISBLANK 
Returns true if the value is blank. 
ISBLANK(value) 

ISEVEN 
Returns true if the number is even. 
ISEVEN(Value) 

ISLOGICAL 
Returns true if the value is a logical value. 
ISLOGICAL(value) 

ISNONTEXT 
Returns true if the value is not text. The same result occurs if the value's cell is empty. 
ISNONTEXT(value) 

ISNUMBER 
Returns true if the value is a number. 
ISNUMBER(value) 

ISODD 
Returns true if the number is odd. 
ISODD(number) 

ISOWEEKNUM 
Returns an ISO week number of the year for the specified date. 
ISOWEEKNUM(date) 

ISPMT 
Calculates interest paid during a specific period of a loan or investment. 
ISPMT(rate, per, nper, pv) 

ISTEXT 
Returns true if the value is text. 
ISTEXT(value) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

KURT 
Calculates the kurtosis (peakedness or flatness of a distribution) of a dataset. 
KURT(number1, [number2], ...) 

LARGE 
Returns the kth largest value in a dataset. 
LARGE(array, k) 

LCM 
Returns the least common multiple of the specified numbers. 
LCM(number1, [number2], ...) 

LEFT 
Returns the length of a specified text. 
LEFT(text, [num_chars]) 

LEN 
Returns the natural logarithm based on the constant e of a number. 
LEN(text) 

LINEST 
Returns an array describing a linear trend. 
LINEST(known_y's, known_x's) 

LN 
Returns the natural logarithm of a number. 
LN(number) 

LOG 
Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base. 
LOG(number, base) 

LOG10 
Returns the Base10 logarithm of a number. 
LOG10(number) 

LOGEST 
Returns an array of the exponential curve based on the specified data. 
LOGEST(known_y's, known_x's) 

LOGNORM.DIST 
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. Use when analyzing data transformed by a logarithm. 
LOGNORM.DIST(x,mean,standard_dev,cumulative) 

LOGNORM.INV 
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. 
LOGNORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev) 

LOGNORMDIST 
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. Use when analyzing data transformed by a logarithm. 
LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev) 

LOGNORMINV 
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. 
LOGNORMINV(probability, mean, standard_dev) 

LOWER 
Returns text converted to lowercase. 
LOWER(text) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

MATCH 
Returns the relative position of an item in an array matching a specified value. 
MATCH(lookup_value, lookup_array, [match_type]) 

MAX 
Returns the largest number of the specified values. 
MAX(number1, [number2], ...) 

MAXA 
Returns the largest number of the specified values, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
MAXA(value1,[value2],...) 

MEDIAN 
Returns the median of the specified numbers. 
MEDIAN(number1, [number2], ...) 

MID 
Returns the number of characters in a text string starting, based on the position you specify. 
MID(text, start_num, num_chars) 

MIN 
Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments. 
MIN(number1, [number2], ...) 

MINA 
Returns the smallest of the specified values, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
MINA(value1, [value2], ...) 

MINUTE 
Converts a serial number to a minute. 
MINUTE(serial_number) 

MIRR 
Considers the cost of an investment and the interest received on reinvestment to determine the modified internal rate of return for periodic cash flows. 
MIRR(values, finance_rate, reinvest_rate) 

MOD 
Returns the remainder after the number is divided by a specified divisor. 
MOD(number, divisor) 

MODE.MULT 
Returns a vertical array of the most repetitive values for a data range. 
MODE.MULT(number1,[number2],...) 

MODE.SNGL 
Returns the value that occurs most frequently in a dataset. 
MODE.SNGL(number1,[number2],...) 

MODEMULT 
Returns a vertical array of the most repetitive values for a data range. 
MODEMULT(number1,[number2],...) 

MODESNGL 
Returns the value that occurs most frequently in a data set. 
MODESNGL(number1,[number2],...) 

MONTH 
Converts a serial number to a month or number (112). 
MONTH(serial_number) 

MROUND 
Returns a number rounded up from zero. 
MROUND(number, multiple) 

MULTINOMIAL 
Returns the multinomial probability distribution of a set of numbers. 
MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...) 
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

NEGBINOM.DIST 
Returns the probability of receiving less than or equal to a particular value in a negative binomial distribution. 
NEGBINOM.DIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s,cumulative) 

NEGBINOMDIST 
Returns the probability of receiving less than or equal to a particular value in a negative binomial distribution. 
NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s) 

NETWORKDAYS 
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates. 
NETWORKDAYS(start_date, end_date, [holidays]) 

NOMINAL 
Returns the annual nominal interest rate. 
NOMINAL(effect_rate, npery) 

NORM.DIST 
Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. 
NORM.DIST(x,mean,standard_dev,cumulative) 

NORM.INV 
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution for a number. 
NORM.INV(probability,mean,standard_dev) 

NORM.S.DIST 
Returns the normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. 
NORM.S.DIST(z,cumulative) 

NORM.S.INV 
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. 
NORM.S.INV(probability) 

NORMDIST 
Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. 
NORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev,cumulative) 

NORMINV 
Retruns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution for a number. 
NORMINV(probability,mean,standard_dev) 

NORMSDIST 
Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. 
NORMSDIST(z) 

NORMSINV 
Returns the inverse of the cumulative standardized normal distribution. 
NORMSINV(probability) 

NOT 
Determines whether a condition is false. 
NOT(logical) 

NOW 
Returns the serial number of the current date and time. 
NOW() 

NPER 
Returns the number of periods for a loan or investment. 
NPER(rate,pmt,pv,[fv],[type]) 

NPV 
Returns the net present value of an investment using a discount rate and a series of periodic cash flows. 
NPV(rate,value1,[value2],...) 

OCT2BIN 
Converts an octal number to binary. 
OCT2BIN(number, [places]) 

OCT2DEC 
Converts an octal number to decimal. 
OCT2DEC(number) 

OCT2HEX 
Converts an octal number to hexadecimal. 
OCT2HEX(number, [places]) 

ODD 
Rounds a number to the nearest odd integer. 
ODD(number) 

OR 
Determines whether only one condition is true. 
OR(logical1, [logical2], ...) 
P
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

PDURATION 
Returns the number of periods needed for an investment to reach a specified amount. 
PDURATION(rate, pv, fv) 

PEARSON 
Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, showing how strongly the two variables correlate. 
PEARSON(array1, array2) 

PERCENTILEEXC 
Calculates the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is 0 to 1. 
PERCENTILEEXC(array,k) 

PERCENTILEINC 
Calculates the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is 0 to 1. 
PERCENTILEINC(array,k) 

PERCENTRANKEXC 
Returns the rank of a value in a dataset as a percentage. It also indicates how many values are less than or equal to the value. 
PERCENTRAKEXC(array,x,[significance]) 

PERCENTRANKINC 
Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage. It also indicates how many values are less than or equal to the value. 
PERCENTRANKINC(array,x,[significance]) 

PERMUT 
Returns the number of permutations of a specified number of objects. 
PERMUT(number, number_chosen) 

PERMUTATIONA 
Returns the number of permutations of a specified number of objects with repetitions. 
PERMUTATIONA(number, numberchosen) 

PHI 
Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution. 
PHI(x) 

PI 
Returns the value of pi. 
PI() 

PMT 
Returns the periodic payment for a loan or annuity. 
PMT(rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type]) 

POISSON.DIST 
Returns the Poisson distribution: the number of events occurring in a given time interval. 
POISSON.DIST(x,mean,cumulative) 

POISSONDIST 
Returns the Poisson distribution: the number of events occurring in a given time interval. 
POISSONDIST(x,mean,cumulative) 

POWER 
Returns the result of a given number raised to a specified power. 
POWER(number, power) 

PPMT 
Returns the principal portion of a loan payment for a specified period. 
PPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type]) 

PROB 
Returns the probability that values in a range are between a lower and upper limit. 
PROB(x_range, prob_range, [lower_limit], [upper_limit]) 

PRODUCT 
Multiplies the specified values. 
PRODUCT(number1, [number2], ...) 

PROPER 
Capitalizes the first letter of a text string. 
PROPER(text) 

PV 
Calculates the present value of a loan or investment. 
PV(rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type]]) 
QR
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

QUARTILE.EXC 
Returns the quartile of a dataset, based on percentile values from 0 to 1. 
QUARTILE.EXC(array, quart) 

QUARTILE.INC 
Returns the quartile for a dataset. 
QUARTILE.INC(array,quart) 

QUARTILEEXC 
Returns the quartile of a dataset, based on percentile values from 0 to 1. 
QUARTILEEXC(array,quart) 

QUARTILEINC 
Returns the quartile for a dataset. 
QUARTILEINC(array,quart) 

QUOTIENT 
Returns the integer portion of a division. 
QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator) 

RADIANS 
Converts degrees to radians. 
RADIANS(angle) 

RAND 
Returns a random number equal or greater to 0, and less than 1. 
RAND() 

RANDBETWEEN 
Returns a random number between two numbers. 
RANDBETWEEN(bottom, top) 

RANK.AVG 
Returns the rank of a number against a list of numbers. 
RANK.AVG(number,ref,[order]) 

RANK.EQ 
Returns the rank of a number against a list of numbers. Duplicate numbers receive the same rank. 
RANK.EQ(number,ref,[order]) 

RANKAVG 
Returns the rank of a number against a list of numbers. 
RANKAVG(number,ref,[order]) 

RANKEQ 
Returns the rank of a number against a list of numbers. Duplicate numbers receive the same rank. 
RANKEQ(number,ref,[order]) 

RATE 
Returns the interest rate on a loan per period. 
RATE(nper, pmt, pv, [fv], [type], [guess]) 

REPLACE 
Replaces characters in string with the specified characters and number of characters in the string. 
REPLACE(old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text) 

REPT 
Repeats text a specified number of times. 
REPT(text, number_times) 

ROMAN 
Converts a number to a Roman numeral. 
ROMAN(number) 

ROUND 
Rounds a number to a specified number of digits. 
ROUND(number, num_digits) 

ROUNDDOWN 
Rounds a number down toward zero. 
ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits) 

ROUNDUP 
Rounds a number up away from zero. 
ROUNDUP(number, num_digits) 

ROW 
Returns the row number of a reference. 
ROW(array, index) 

ROWS 
Returns the number of rows of a reference. 
ROWS(array) 

RRI 
Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment. 
RRI(nper, pv, fv) 

RSQ 
Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. 
RSQ(known_y's,known_x's) 
S
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

SEARCH 
Locates specified text in other text (not casesensitive). 
SEARCH(find_text,within_text,[start_num]) 

SEC 
Returns the secant of an angle. 
SEC(number) 

SECH 
Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle. 
SECH(number) 

SECOND 
Converts a serial number to a time in seconds (059). 
SECOND(serial_number) 

SERIESSUM 
Returns the sum of a power series. 
SERIESSUM(x, n, m, coefficients) 

SIGN 
Returns the sign of a real number. 
SIGN(number) 

SIN 
Returns the sine of a number. 
SIN(number) 

SINH 
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. 
SINH(number) 

SKEW 
Returns the skewness of a distribution for a dataset. 
SKEW(number1, [number2], ...) 

SKEW.P 
Returns the skewness of a distribution for a dataset based on a population. Used when determining the characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean. 
SKEW.P(number1, [number2], ...) 

SKEWP 
Returns the skewness of a distribution for a data set based on a population. Used when determining the characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean. 
SKEWP(number1, [number2], ...) 

SLN 
Returns the depreciation of an asset for one period using straightline depreciation. 
SLN(cost, salvage, life) 

SLOPE 
Returns the slope of the linear regression line. 
SLOPE(known_y's, known_x's) 

SMALL 
Returns the smallest value in a list. 
SMALL(array, k) 

SQRT 
Returns a positive square root. 
SQRT(number) 

SQRTPI 
Returns the square root of (number * pi). 
SQRTPI(number) 

STANDARDIZE 
Returns a normalized value. 
STANDARDIZE(x, mean, standard_dev) 

STDEV.P 
Calculates standard deviation based on the whole population. 
STDEV.P(number1,[number2],...) 

STDEV.S 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. 
STDEV.S(number1,[number2],...) 

STDEVA 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample of numbers, text, and logical values. 
STDEVA(value1, [value2], ...) 

STDEVP 
Calculates standard deviation based on the whole population. 
STDEVP(number1,[number2],...) 

STDEVPA 
Calculates standard deviation based on the whole population, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
STDEVPA(value1, [value2], ...) 

STDEVS 
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. 
STDEVS(number1,[number2],...) 

STEYX 
Calculates the standard error or the error amount in the prediction of y for an x. 
STEYX(known_y's, known_x's) 

SUBSTITUTE 
Substitutes new text for old text in a text string. 
SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num]) 

SUBTOTAL 
Returns a subtotal for a list or database. 
SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref) 

SUM 
Sums the values of the specified cells. 
SUM(number1,[number2],...) 

SUMIF 
Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. 
SUMIF(range, criteria) 

SUMIFS 
Adds the contents of cells in a range that meets multiple criteria. 
SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...) 

SUMPRODUCT 
Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components. 
SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2], [array3], ...) 

SUMSQ 
Returns the sum of the squares for a series of values. 
SUMSQ(number1, [number2], ...) 

SUMX2MY2 
Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. 
SUMX2MY2(array_x, array_y) 

SUMX2PY2 
Calculates the sum of squares, and returns the sum of the squares of corresponding items. 
SUMX2PY2(array_x, array_y) 

SUMXMY2 
Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays. 
SUMXMY2(array_x, array_y) 

SWITCH 
Returns the first matching value when comparing one value against a list of values. 
SWITCH(expression1, value1, [expression2, value2], ...) 

SYD 
Returns the sumofyears depreciation of an asset for a specified period. 
SYD(cost, salvage, life, per) 
T
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

T 
Returns a value for referenced text. 
T(value) 

T.DIST 
Returns the student's lefttailed tdistribution. 
T.DIST(x,deg_freedom, cumulative) 

T.DIST.2T 
Returns the student's twotailed tdistribution. 
T.DIST.2T(x,deg_freedom) 

T.DIST.RT 
Returns the student's righttailed tdistribution. 
T.DIST.RT(x,deg_freedom) 

T.INV 
Returns the inverse of the student's lefttailed tdistribution. 
T.INV(probability,deg_freedom) 

T.INV.2T 
Returns the inverse of the student's twotailed tdistribution. 
T.INV.2T(probability,deg_freedom) 

TAN 
Returns the tangent of a number. 
TAN(number) 

TANH 
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. 
TANH(number) 

TBILLEQ 
Returns the bondequivalent for a Treasury bill. 
TBILLEQ(settlement, maturity, discount) 

TBILLPRICE 
Returns the price per $100 of face value for a Treasury bill. 
TBILLPRICE(settlement, maturity, discount) 

TBILLYIELD 
Returns the yield for a Treasury bill. 
TBILLYIELD(settlement, maturity, pr) 

TDIST 
Returns the student's lefttailed tdistribution. 
TDIST(x,deg_freedom, cumulative) 

TDIST2T 
Returns the student's twotailed tdistribution. 
TDIST2T(x,deg_freedom) 

TDISTRT 
Returns the student's righttailed tdistribution. 
TDISTRT(x,deg_freedom) 

TEXT 
Converts a number to text. 
TEXT(value, format_text) 

TEXTJOIN 
Combines multiple variables or strings into one string. 
TEXTJOIN(delimiter, ignore_empty, text1, [text2], …) 

TIME 
Converts a specified time into a serial number. 
TIME(hour, minute, second) 

TIMEVALUE 
Converts a specified time in text format into a serial number. 
TIMEVALUE(time_text) 

TINV 
Returns the inverse of the student's lefttailed tdistribution. 
TINV(probability,deg_freedom) 

TINV2T 
Returns the inverse of the student's twotailed tdistribution. 
TINV2T(probability,deg_freedom) 

TODAY 
Returns the serial number of today's date. 
TODAY() 

TRANSPOSE 
Converts a range from vertical to horizontal, or horizontal to vertical. 
TRANSPOSE(Array) 

TREND 
Returns values along a linear trend. 
TREND(known_y's, known_x's, new_x's) 

TRIM 
Removes spaces from text. 
TRIM(text) 

TRIMMEAN 
Returns the mean by excluding data points from the top and bottom of the dataset. Only interior data points are used. 
TRIMMEAN(array, percent) 

TRUE 
Returns the value of true. 
TRUE() 

TRUNC 
Truncates a number into an integer. 
TRUNC(number, [num_digits]) 
UV
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

UNICHAR 
Returns the Unicode character that is referenced by the specified numeric value. 
UNICHAR(number) 

UNICODE 
Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text. 
UNICODE(text) 

UNIQUE 
Returns a list of distinct values in a list or range. 
UNIQUE(value1, [value2], ...) 

UPPER 
Returns text converted to uppercase. 
UPPER(text) 

VALUE 
Converts text to a value. 
VALUE(text) 

VAR.P 
Calculates variance based on the entire population. 
VAR.P(number1,[number2],...) 

VAR.S 
Estimates variance based on a sample. 
VAR.S(number1,[number2],...) 

VARA 
Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical value. 
VARA(number1,[number2],...) 

VARP 
Calculates variance based on the entire population. 
VARP(number1,[number2],...) 

VARPA 
Calculates variance of a population based on numbers, text, and logical values. 
VARPA(number1,[number2],...) 
WY
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Formula  Description  Syntax  Reference 

WEEKDAY 
Converts a serial number to a day of the week. 
WEEKDAY(serial_number,[return_type]) 

WEEKNUM 
Converts a serial number to a number that indicates that week of the year. 
WEEKNUM(serial_number,[return_type) 

WEIBULL.DIST 
Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
WEIBULL.DIST(x,alpha,beta,[cumulative]) 

WEIBULLDIST 
Returns the Weibull distribution. 
WEIBULLDIST(x,alpha,beta,[cumulative]) 

WORKDAY 
Returns a serial number for a date that is a specified number of working days in the future or past. 
WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays]]) 

XNPV 
Calculates the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that are not periodic. 
XNPV(rate, values, dates) 

XOR 
Performs an Exclusive Or operation. Using two logical statements, it returns true if either statement is true. It returns false if both statements are true. 
XOR(logical1, [logical2],…) 

YEAR 
Returns the year as a number according to the internal calculation rules. 
YEAR(serial_number) 

YEARFRAC 
Calculates the difference between two date values, in fraction of years. 
YEARFRAC(start_date, end_date, [basis]) 